2 in North America and E123 in the European Union..  The earliest archeological evidence for amaranth in the Old World was found in an excavation in Narhan, India, dated to 1000-800 BCE[dubious – discuss]. To this day, amaranth grains are toasted much like popcorn and mixed with honey, molasses, or chocolate to make a treat called alegría, meaning "joy" in Spanish. Use of PCR-based molecular markers to identify weedy Amaranthus species. (2006). A., Jan, S., & Rashid, I. Several species are raised for amaranth "grain" in Asia and the Americas.  Cooked amaranth leaves are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and manganese, with moderate levels of folate, iron, magnesium, and potassium.  Leaves are approximately 6.5–15 centimetres (2 1⁄2–6 inches) and of oval or elliptical shape that are either opposite or alternate across species, although most leaves are whole and simple with entire margins. J.A Vozzo. List of Bengali names of vegetables in English Here is a list of Bengali vegetables names from English.  The support for the addition of the subdivision Albersia because of its circumcise, indehiscent fruits coupled with three elliptic to linear tepals to be exclusive characters to members of this subgenus. In Lingala (spoken in the Congo), it is known as lɛngalɛnga or bítɛkutɛku. , Amaranth has a primary root with deeper spreading secondary fibrous root structures. , There is near certainty that A. hypochondriacus is the common ancestor to the cultivated grain species, however the later series of domestication to follow remains unclear. Wild species have longer bracteole's compared to cultivated species.  Bracteole morphology present on the stem is used for taxonomic classification of Amaranth. A., Jan, S., & Rashid, I. In Vietnam, it is called rau dền and is used to make soup. Cooking decreases its nutritional value substantially across all nutrients, with only dietary minerals remaining at moderate levels. Tropical Tree Seed Manual, USDA Forest Service, edt.  The panicle is harvested 200 days after cultivation with approximately 1,000 to 3,000 seeds harvested per gram. Amaranthus is part of the Amaranthaceae that is part of the larger grouping of the Carophyllales.  Evidence from single-nucleotide polymorphisms and chromosome structure supports A. hypochondriacus as the common ancestor of the three grain species.. It is used to prepare curries such as hulee, palya, majjigay-hulee, and so on. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, 10.1614/0043-1745(2003)051[0037:IORPAR]2.0.CO;2, "Amaranth tastes as good as it looks | James Wong", "Analysis of phylogenetic relationships and genome size evolution of the Amaranthus genus using GBS indicates the ancestors of an ancient crop", "The Amaranth Genome: Genome, Transcriptome, and Physical Map Assembly", "Type of Amaranthus interruptus R.Br. Mosyakin and Robertson 1996 later divided into three subgenera: Acnida, Amaranthus, and Albersia. Amaranth is a herbaceous plant or shrub that is either annual or perennial across the genus. In China, the leaves and stems are used as a stir-fry vegetable, or in soups. "The following color additives are not authorized for use in food products in the United States: (1) Amaranth (C.I. In Maharashtra, it is called shravani maath and is available in both red and white colour. (2017). , Ancient amaranth grains still used include the three species, Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. In Indonesia and Malaysia, leaf amaranth is called bayam. There has been opposing hypotheses of a single as opposed to multiple domestication events of the three grain species. Also a complementing source of other vitamins such as thiamine, niacin and riboflavin, 1) Amarantha Leaves-Thotakura Fry 2) Amarantha Leaves-Thotakura Pulusu 3) Chuvanna Cheera(Red Amaranth) Roast 4) Lal Math Bhaji. Quinoa almost annihilated from Bangladesh. Seeds of Amaranth grain have been found in archeological records in Northern Argentina that date to the mid-Holocene. The leaves of some species are also eaten. It is easy to cook. A. arenicola, L.). In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in India, it is called chaulai and is a popular green leafy vegetable (referred to in the class of vegetable preparations called saag). The genus also contains several well-known ornamental plants, such as Amaranthus caudatus (love-lies-bleeding), a vigorous, hardy annual with dark purplish flowers crowded in handsome drooping spikes. viridis..  There is evidence of phylogenetic and geographical support for clear groupings that indicate separate domestication events in South America and Central America. In Karnataka in India, it is called harive soppu (ಹರಿವೆ ಸೊಪ್ಪು) . In Tamil Nadu, it is called mulaikkira and is regularly consumed as a favourite dish, where the greens are steamed and mashed with light seasoning of salt, red chili pepper, and cumin. It is called chua in Kumaun area of Uttarakhand, where it is a popular red-green vegetable. , "Amaranth" derives from Greek ἀμάραντος (amárantos), "unfading", with the Greek word for "flower", ἄνθος (ánthos), factoring into the word's development as amaranth, the unfading flower.  A modified infrageneric classification of Amaranthus includes three subgenera: Acnida, Amaranthus, and Albersia, with the taxonomy further differentiated by sections within each of the subgenera. Amaranths are recorded as food plants for some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including the nutmeg moth and various case-bearer moths of the genus Coleophora: C. amaranthella, C. enchorda (feeds exclusively on Amaranthus), C. immortalis (feeds exclusively on Amaranthus), C. lineapulvella, and C. versurella (recorded on A. spinosus). ], Culpepper et al. Amaranth's cosmopolitan distribution makes it one of many plants providing evidence of Pre-Columbian oceanic contact. Amaranth grain is collected from the genus. Flowers are radially symmetric and either bisexual or unisexual with very small, bristly perianth and pointy bracts. , The phylogenies of Amaranthus of maximum parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear and chloroplast genes suggest five clades within the genus: Diecious / Pumilus, Hybris, Galapagos, Eurasian/ South African, Australian (ESA), ESA + South American. Biology of amaranths. Assad, R., Reshi, Z. Proper weed control needs to be applied before the species successfully colonizes in the crop field and causes significant yield reductions. Amaranth weed species have an extended period of germination, rapid growth, and high rates of seed production, and have been causing problems for farmers since the mid-1990s. This probably occurred in the Miocene.  This makes the proper identification of Amaranthus species at the seedling stage essential for agriculturalists. Good source of vitamin A, vitamin C and folate. (2017). 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