It was recommended for good birds’ health management that removal of fecal material from the poultry house should be done frequently to reduce the volume of gas emission [17]. Furthermore, for effective use of circulation fans it should be installed at the center 1–1.5 m above the floor and tilted downward at an angle 5o. Generally, chicken perform under a wide range of temperature regardless of its class (broiler, pullet or breeder) or age. Daghir [19] reported that a temperature range of 18–22°C is required for growing broilers. The difference between the air velocity in the center and the side of the house can vary from 15 to 40% [2]. A minimum height of 0.4 m is recommended to prevent the house from water seepage, direct and indirect solar radiation, pests and predators [2]. It A range should provide shelter, greens. However, it has been reported that alternating short light and dark period known as intermittent lighting enhances chicken performance [16, 51, 52, 53, 54]. Vegetation should be kept as minimal as possible and at average height to reduce the nest of wild birds and invasion of rodents and other predators. It protects the birds from the harsh environmental climatic conditions, which may have adverse effect on the chickens’ performance and productivity. Under certain conditions, pullets may be beak trimmed at the hatchery or, in rare cases, within the first 7 days after hatch. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. can be adopted easily. Fresh air enters through the air inlet pipes at a velocity of 3.5–6 m/s, however this velocity is quickly dropped to about 1 m/s depending on the size and type of the house. Housing and Environmental Management of Poultry Michael J. Darre, Ph.D., P.A.S. The exhaust fans are placed below the air inlet pipes on both sides of the building walls [2]. Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used in this rearing system. Scientific management practices in respect of feeding, watering. is obtained. ... Scientific management practices like breeding, feeding, medication, culling etc. Farmers in the tropics have successfully used locally sourced materials such as thatched roof and bamboo as roofing materials for the construction of naturally ventilated poultry houses [32]. The exhaust fans are placed on the lower sidewalls while, air inlets are placed in the ceiling. However, Lacy and Czarick [40], under the same temperature condition reported a better growth rate at 2 and 3 m/s air velocity respectively for broilers. It has been proved very efficient for laying operations, right from day-old to till disposal. The floor space requirement in cages is 50% of the floor space needed in deep-litter. Majority of the people in the poorest regions of the tropics rely on poultry production as their major source of protein supply. HOUSING, BREEDING, & FEEDING LOKOL CHICKENS By Russell Parker A TRAINER’S HANDBOOK ... • CARE AND MANAGEMENT 45 • COMMERCIAL CHICKEN KEEPING 70 • DUCK KEEPING 38 • FEEDING 21 • GOATS WITH POULTRY 86 • HOUSING 14 • INDEX 5 • INTRODUCTION 6 • PLANNING AND RECORDS 75 • WILD CHICKENS 11 . ing that the poultry house is maintained with appropriate brood-ing, rearing, growing and laying conditions; and ensuring that recommended vaccinations are given and appropriate feeding programmes are used. It has been recommended that tunnel ventilated system should be used in hot weather because cool weather reduce the air exchange rate. Old chicks hinder the performance in chicken production regardless the class of chicken to temperature. And productivity chopped paddy straw or wood shavings are used as litter materials tensioner prevent. 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